Increasingly, political leaders are leveraging generative AI tools to manipulate public opinion, using deepfakes to promote their agendas, and exploiting AI for censoring political, social, and religious speech. This trend, highlighted by a recent Freedom House report, raises concerns about the erosion of democratic processes and human rights online.
The manipulative power of AI deepfakes in politics
Political figures have begun harnessing the power of generative AI to influence public opinion. The former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Imran Khan, and several U.S. leaders, including Donald Trump and Ron DeSantis, have all reportedly used AI deepfakes in their campaigns. These leaders aim to sow doubt, tarnish opponents, and sway public debate, sometimes through the spread of manipulated images and audio. This emergent trend underscores the potential dangers posed by technological advancements in generative AI when misused for political stratagems.
AI: A potent enabler of digital repression
Artificial Intelligence, when misused, can serve as a powerful tool for digital repression. Freedom House's 'Freedom on the Net' report emphasizes that AI is making it simpler and more cost-effective to censor content, conduct surveillance, and spread disinformation. Governments in several countries have reportedly mandated social media platforms to use AI to detect and eliminate disfavored political, social, and religious speech, thereby breaching international human rights laws. The state's involvement in such censorship is often concealed, conveniently resolving the 'digital dictator’s dilemma' of weighing online control against public backlash.
In an alarming development, state actors are reportedly contracting 'AI for hire' companies that specialize in crafting AI-generated propaganda. This is particularly evident in countries like Venezuela, where state-backed news channels have started sharing videos featuring AI-generated, English-speaking news anchors countering Western criticisms. Such tactics signify a technical and strategic evolution in the way governments use media outlets for propagandic purposes. It's a chilling reminder of the extent to which AI can be exploited to spread manipulated news content.
Adding to the complexity of AI misuse in politics, Freedom House's report highlights that political actors are falsely claiming genuine videos and audio to be deepfakes. A notable incident happened in India, where a state official attempted to dismiss leaked audio evidence of him disparaging his colleagues by claiming it was AI-generated. Such deceptive tactics cause significant harm by eroding public trust in the democratic process and spreading misinformation, thereby compromising the integrity of political discourse.
The urgent need for stronger AI regulation
In light of the potential dangers posed by AI tools, there's a pressing need for democratic states to tighten their AI regulation. Freedom House President Michael J. Abramowitz asserts that it's critical to enhance transparency in AI usage, establish effective oversight mechanisms, and prioritize the protection of human rights online. Addressing these issues can help mitigate the risks associated with the proliferation of generative AI tools and their potential misuse in political arenas.